Changes between Version 7 and Version 8 of TracEnvironment


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Timestamp:
10/02/17 20:17:00 (2 months ago)
Author:
trac
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  • TracEnvironment

    v7 v8  
    22
    33[[TracGuideToc]]
    4 [[PageOutline]]
     4[[PageOutline(2-5,Contents,pullout)]]
    55
    6 Trac uses a directory structure and a database for storing project data. The directory is referred to as the environment.
     6Trac uses a directory structure and a database for storing project data. The directory is referred to as the '''environment'''.
     7
     8Trac supports [http://sqlite.org/ SQLite], [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL] and [http://mysql.com/ MySQL] databases. With PostgreSQL and MySQL you have to create the database before running `trac-admin initenv`.
    79
    810== Creating an Environment
    911
    10 A new Trac environment is created using [TracAdmin#initenv trac-admin's initenv]:
     12A new Trac environment is created using the [TracAdmin#initenv initenv] command:
    1113{{{#!sh
    1214$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject initenv
    1315}}}
    1416
    15 `trac-admin` will ask you for the name of the project and the database connection string, see below.
     17`trac-admin` will ask you for the name of the project and the [#DatabaseConnectionStrings database connection string].
    1618
    1719=== Useful Tips
     
    2123 - The user under which the web server runs will require file system write permission to the environment directory and all the files inside. Please remember to set the appropriate permissions. The same applies to the source code repository, although the user under which Trac runs will only require write access to a Subversion repository created with the BDB file system; for other repository types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation.
    2224 
    23  - `initenv`, when using an svn repository, does not imply that trac-admin will perform `svnadmin create` for the specified repository path. You need to perform the `svnadmin create` prior to `trac-admin initenv` if you're creating a new svn repository altogether with a new Trac environment; otherwise you will see a message "Warning: couldn't index the repository" when initializing the environment.
     25 - `initenv` does not create a version control repository for the specified path. If you wish to specify a default repository using the optional arguments to `initenv` you must create the repository first, otherwise you will see a message when initializing the environment: //Warning: couldn't index the default repository//.
    2426
    2527 - Non-ascii environment paths are not supported.
    26  
    27  - Also, it seems that project names with spaces can be problematic for authentication, see [trac:#7163].
    2828
    29  - TracPlugins located in a [TracIni#inherit-section shared plugins folder] that is defined in an [TracIni#GlobalConfiguration inherited configuration] are currently not loaded during creation, and hence, if they need to create extra tables for example, you'll need to [TracUpgrade#UpgradetheTracEnvironment upgrade the environment] before being able to use it.
     29 - TracPlugins located in a [TracIni#inherit-plugins_dir-option shared plugins directory] that is defined in an [TracIni#GlobalConfiguration inherited configuration] are not enabled by default, in contrast to plugins in the environment `plugins` directory. Hence, if they need to create extra tables, for example, the tables will not be created during environment creation and you'll need to [TracUpgrade#UpgradetheTracEnvironment upgrade the environment]. Alternatively you can avoid the need to upgrade the environment by explicitly enabling the plugin in the inherited configuration, or in a configuration file using the `--config` option. See TracAdmin#FullCommandReference for more information.
     30
     31{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em;"
     32**Caveat:** don't confuse the //Trac environment directory// with the //source code repository directory//.
     33
     34This is a common beginners' mistake.
     35It happens that the structure for a Trac environment is loosely modeled after the Subversion repository directory structure, but those are two disjoint entities and they are not and //must not// be located at the same place.
     36}}}
    3037
    3138== Database Connection Strings
    3239
    33 Trac supports [http://sqlite.org/ SQLite], [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL] and [http://mysql.com/ MySQL] database backends. The default is SQLite, which is probably sufficient for most projects. The database file is then stored in the environment directory, and can easily be [wiki:TracBackup backed up] together with the rest of the environment.
     40You will need to specify a database connection string at the time the environment is created. The default is SQLite, which is sufficient for most projects. The SQLite database file is stored in the environment directory, and can easily be [wiki:TracBackup backed up] together with the rest of the environment.
    3441
    35 Note that if the username or password of the connection string (if applicable) contains the `:`, `/` or `@` characters, they need to be URL encoded.
     42Note that if the username or password of the connection string (if applicable) contains the `:`, `/` or `@` characters, they need to be [http://meyerweb.com/eric/tools/dencoder/ URL encoded].
     43{{{#!sh
     44$ python -c "import urllib; print urllib.quote('password@:/123', '')"
     45password%40%3A%2F123
     46}}}
    3647
    3748=== SQLite Connection String
     
    4556=== PostgreSQL Connection String
    4657
    47 If you want to use PostgreSQL instead, you'll have to use a different connection string. For example, to connect to a PostgreSQL database on the same machine called `trac` for user `johndoe` with the password `letmein` use:
     58The connection string for PostgreSQL is a bit more complex. For example, to connect to a PostgreSQL database named `trac` on `localhost` for user `johndoe` and password `letmein`, use:
    4859{{{
    4960postgres://johndoe:letmein@localhost/trac
     
    6576}}}
    6677
    67 Note that with PostgreSQL you will have to create the database before running `trac-admin initenv`.
    68 
    6978See the [http://www.postgresql.org/docs/ PostgreSQL documentation] for detailed instructions on how to administer [http://postgresql.org PostgreSQL].
    7079Generally, the following is sufficient to create a database user named `tracuser` and a database named `trac`:
     
    7483}}}
    7584
    76 When running `createuser` you will be prompted for the password for the user 'tracuser'. This new user will not be a superuser, will not be allowed to create other databases and will not be allowed to create other roles. These privileges are not needed to run a Trac instance. If no password is desired for the user, simply remove the `-P` and `-E` options from the `createuser` command. Also note that the database should be created as UTF8. LATIN1 encoding causes errors, because of Trac's use of unicode. SQL_ASCII also seems to work.
     85When running `createuser` you will be prompted for the password for the `tracuser`. This new user will not be a superuser, will not be allowed to create other databases and will not be allowed to create other roles. These privileges are not needed to run a Trac instance. If no password is desired for the user, simply remove the `-P` and `-E` options from the `createuser` command. Also note that the database should be created as UTF8. LATIN1 encoding causes errors, because of Trac's use of unicode.
    7786
    78 Under some default configurations (Debian) one will have run the `createuser` and `createdb` scripts as the `postgres` user:
     87Under some default configurations (Debian), run the `createuser` and `createdb` scripts as the `postgres` user:
    7988{{{#!sh
    8089$ sudo su - postgres -c 'createuser -U postgres -S -D -R -E -P tracuser'
     
    8998=== MySQL Connection String
    9099
    91 The format of the MySQL connection string is similar to those for PostgreSQL, with the `postgres` scheme being replaced by `mysql`. For example, to connect to a MySQL database on the same machine called `trac` for user `johndoe` with password `letmein`:
     100The format of the MySQL connection string is similar to PostgreSQL, with the `postgres` scheme being replaced by `mysql`. For example, to connect to a MySQL database on `localhost` named `trac` for user `johndoe` with password `letmein`:
    92101{{{
    93102mysql://johndoe:letmein@localhost:3306/trac
     
    96105== Source Code Repository
    97106
    98 Since Trac 0.12, a single environment can be connected to more than one repository. There are many different ways to connect repositories to an environment, see TracRepositoryAdmin. This page also details the various attributes that can be set for a repository, such as `type`, `url`, `description`.
     107A single environment can be connected to more than one repository. However, by default Trac is not connected to any source code repository, and the ''Browse Source'' navigation item will not be displayed.
    99108
    100 In Trac 0.12 `trac-admin` no longer asks questions related to repositories. Therefore, by default Trac is not connected to any source code repository, and the ''Browse Source'' toolbar item will not be displayed.
    101 You can also explicitly disable the `trac.versioncontrol.*` components, which are otherwise still loaded:
    102 {{{#!ini
    103 [components]
    104 trac.versioncontrol.* = disabled
    105 }}}
    106 
    107 For some version control systems, it is possible to specify not only the path to the repository, but also a ''scope'' within the repository. Trac will then only show information related to the files and changesets below that scope. The Subversion backend for Trac supports this. For other types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation.
    108 
    109 Example of a configuration for a Subversion repository used as the default repository:
    110 {{{#!ini
    111 [trac]
    112 repository_type = svn
    113 repository_dir = /path/to/your/repository
    114 }}}
    115 
    116 The configuration for a scoped Subversion repository would be:
    117 {{{#!ini
    118 [trac]
    119 repository_type = svn
    120 repository_dir = /path/to/your/repository/scope/within/repos
    121 }}}
     109There are several ways to connect repositories to an environment, see TracRepositoryAdmin. A single repository can be specified when the environment is created by passing the optional arguments `repository_type` and `repository_dir` to the `initenv` command.
    122110
    123111== Directory Structure
    124112
    125 An environment directory will usually consist of the following files and directories:
     113An environment consists of the following files and directories:
    126114
    127115 * `README` - Brief description of the environment.
     
    130118  * `attachments` - Attachments to wiki pages and tickets.
    131119 * `conf`
    132   * `trac.ini` - Main configuration file. See TracIni.
     120  * `trac.ini` - Main [TracIni configuration file].
    133121 * `db`
    134122  * `trac.db` - The SQLite database, if you are using SQLite.
    135  * `htdocs` - Directory containing web resources, which can be referenced in Genshi templates using `/chrome/site/...` URLs.
    136  * `log` - Default directory for log files, if `file` logging is enabled and a relative path is given.
     123 * `htdocs` - Directory containing web resources, which can be referenced in templates using the path `/chrome/site/...`.
     124 * `log` - Default directory for log files when `file` logging is enabled and a relative path is given.
    137125 * `plugins` - Environment-specific [wiki:TracPlugins plugins].
    138126 * `templates` - Custom Genshi environment-specific templates.
    139   * `site.html` - Method to customize header, footer, and style, described in TracInterfaceCustomization#SiteAppearance.
    140 
    141 === Caveat: don't confuse a ''Trac environment directory'' with the ''source code repository directory'' #Caveat
    142 
    143 This is a common beginners' mistake.
    144 It happens that the structure for a Trac environment is loosely modelled after the Subversion repository directory structure, but those are two disjoint entities and they are not and ''must not'' be located at the same place.
     127  * `site.html` - Method to [TracInterfaceCustomization#SiteAppearance customize] the site header, footer, and style.
    145128
    146129----
    147 See also: TracAdmin, TracBackup, TracIni, TracGuide
     130See also: TracAdmin, TracBackup, TracIni